Type and Period (2)

  • (Early Medieval/Dark Age to Medieval - 850 AD to 1150 AD)
  • (Early Medieval/Dark Age to Medieval - 850 AD to 1150 AD)

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Full Description

PRN 35064 A SETTLEMENT APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED IN THE AREA OF HALL FARM IN THE LATE SAXON PERIOD (LATE C9) WHEN THE AREA WAS DIVIDED INTO EAST-WEST STRIPS BY A NUMBER OF DITCHES. ALTHOUGH THE OCCUPATION AREAS OF THIS SETTLEMENT ARE NOT CLEARLY IDENTIFIED THEY SEEM TO HAVE BEEN LOCATED AT THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN LIMITS OF THE INVESTIGATION SITE WHERE THERE WAS SOME EVIDENCE OF TIMBER BUILDINGS AND RUBBISH AND CESS PITS. IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF THE EXCAVATION AREA WAS A LATE SAXON INDUSTRIAL ZONE, REPRESENTED BY AN IRON SMITHY AND A SECOND IRON-WORKING FURNACE. NEARBY WAS A POSSIBLE BARN. SETTLEMENT CONTINUED INTO THE C12. {1}{2} A PREVIOUS EVALUATION HAD REVEALED SAXON DITCHES, PITS, POSTHOLES, A POSSIBLE SUNKEN-FEATURED BUILDING AND POTTERY. {3} A synthesis of work on this site revealed that the site was probably occupied in the late Saxon period, divided up into fields and crofts bounded by ditches and gullies, mostly on east/west and north/south alignments, at some time in the late ninth century. In the north of the site plots were also delineated by a line of cess and refuse pits which probably ran along the back boundary of a croft or crofts. The pits contained large quantities of waterlogged roundwood, rush seeds, aquatic invertebrate remains and animal bone. The animal bone included pig and deer, suggesting woodland nearby, although no woodland is mentioned in Domesday. An almost complete late ninth to mid-tenth century pottery vessel was found on its side in a pit at the southern edge of the site - the function of the vessel was not clear. Just to the east of this pit was an area of indeterminate structural remains represented by postholes and hearths. Structural remains were also noted in the south-western and south-eastern corners of the site as well as in the northern part. A rectangular arrangement of postholes represented a timber structure with an internal division, thought to be a barn or stables.{4} The south-western part of the site was an area of industrial activity. A sub-rectangular feature with a bowl-shaped depression set into it contained multiple burnt ashy layers, charcoal, ash, hammerscale and large quantities of ironworking slag, smithing hearth bottom and vitrified hearth lining and was identified as a furnace. A neighbouring pit also contained hearth lining, slag and flake hammerscale, alongside mortar, animal bone and pottery. A second ironworking hearth/furnace was found close by. These remains were thought to represent an iron smithy for the secondary production of tools and utensils. The artefacts found suggest the smith was a general smith or cutler, making and repairing a range of domestic and agricultural tools and utensils. A horseshoe suggests the smith was also a farrier.{4} Activity and occupation on the site appears to have terminated in the first half of the twelfth century when the area was ploughed over.{4}

Sources/Archives (5)

  •  Report: Archaeological Project Services. 1997. Archaeological Excavation on Land Adjacent to Hall Farm, Baston. BHF93.
  •  Archive: Archaeological Project Services. 1997. Archaeological Excavation on Land Adjacent to Hall Farm, Baston. LCNCC 1994.22.
  •  Report: Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire. 1992. Archaeological Evaluation at Baston Hall Farm. BAH91.
  •  Report: Archaeological Project Services. Hall Farm, Baston, Lincolnshire: Investigation of a Late Saxon Village and Medieval Manorial Complex.
  •  Article in Serial: Taylor, G.. 2003. Lincolnshire History and Archaeology. Vol 38, pp.5-33.



Grid reference Centred TF 114 138 (438m by 325m)

Related Monuments/Buildings (2)

Related Events/Activities (3)

External Links (0)

Record last edited

Mar 21 2021 8:35PM


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